East Bengal, later known East Pakistan, emerged in world history of nations in the early ’70s with a new name “People’s Republic of Bangladesh”. This is the only country in the world which was born on the basis of a language; known as “Bangla”. This “Bangla” or Bengali language is not recent, but it has a long history.
The existence of civilization in Bengali Delta dates started since in the 3rd century BC, nearly 4,300 years ago. Infect, the modern civilizations started nearly from 1199 when the days of the Sultanate of Delhi started. Then the Muslim rulers pay attention to the Bengal and the modern era was beginning. The present area of Bangladesh was defined with the partitioned of India and Pakistan in 1947, when it used to known as East Pakistan. Though a large number of Bengali residing at cross-border i.e. the West Bangle a part of India, in both of this part the major language is Bangla. Unfortunately very first time on February 23, 1948, the Pakistan government consist East Pakistan declared that language of new born country i.e. in Pakistan only Urdu shall be the state language.
This concept of the then rulers was absurd and the Bengali peoples never accepted such kind of proposal as a result it was protested by Bengali-speaking people of East Pakistan. Resulting to civil commotion thus to resolve the issue the ruler of Pakistan took the path of oppression an enacted and promulgated a new legislation against which a communal tensions grew and faced with public opposition, the government declared all kinds of mass rally and protest are illegal. Students of Dhaka University and other political activists was united under the guidance of Late Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman formed a student action committee under whom a language movement was organized on 21 February 1952 it was blasted and many students’ protesters sacrifices their life to deny the absurd proposition of Pakistani rulers and to established Bangla as one of the state language of the than Pakistan killed on that day and this movement reached its final stage.
The 7th March Speech of Bangabandhu was given by the founding father of Bangladesh, Sheikh Mujibur Rahman on 7th March 1971 at the Ramna Race Course in Dhaka to a gathering of over two million people. The speech inspired the Bengali people to prepare for a war of independence and in 16th December 1971, Bangladesh was born in the world map as a Bengali Nation based on Bengali Language, accommodating all religions in the country by respecting all different faith & religions using the only one language known as “Bangla”. This language was recognized with shedding of young blood of the nation. The glorious language movement was finally respected worldwide and due recognition of it was given through declaration as the official “International Mother Language Day” on November 17, 1999 UNESCO. On 30th October 2017, UNESCO added the speech in the Memory of the World Register as a documentary heritage.
The speech inspired the Bengali people to prepare for a war of independence and in 16th December 1971, Bangladesh was born in the world map as a Bengali Nation based on Bengali Language, accommodating all religions in the country by respecting all different faith & religions using the only one language known as “Bangla”.
Bangla language was recognized with shedding of young blood of the nation. The glorious language movement was finally respected worldwide and due recognition of it was given through declaration as the official “International Mother Language Day” on November 17, 1999 UNESCO.
The economy of Bangladesh is now growing in a rapid and sustainable way. Since independence in 1971, Bangladesh has made significant progress in the activities of its economic sector. By the end of the 1990's, the government's economic policies had become more robust. For the development of the economy of Bangladesh, almost all sectors contributed including Apparel, pharmaceuticals, agriculture, and shipbuilding.
Bangladesh is now the most viable business field among the South Asian countries. According to the IMF, Bangladesh's economy is one of the fastest growing economies in the world in 2016, and it is the second fastest growing economy. Bangladesh has achieved a 6.5% growth in the last 10 years since 2004. These sectors have the contribution of almost all sectors including garments, the export of agricultural products, shipbuilding, fish and seafood, the export of jute and leather products, pharmaceuticals and steel. Bangladesh's telecommunications and Information Technology industry is also increasing rapidly due to high investment from overseas companies.
Not to mention, we can’t deny the contribution of private garments to the development of the garment industry. In the late 1990's, about 1.5 million people working in this sector. But now around 35 lakh workers work in this sector. From 2001 to 2002, export earnings have reached $ 325 million, which was 52% of Bangladesh's total exports. Bangladesh left behind India in garment export in 2009. Export of Bangladesh in that year was 2.66 billion US dollars. Most hope is that exports from 2014 have been raised to about 3.12 billion dollars per month.
Among the principal industries we can mention Garments, Textiles & amp; Knitwear (2nd largest in the world), Tea, Ceramics, Cement, Leather, Jute (largest producer in the world), Chemical, Fertilizer, Shrimp Processing, Sugar, Paper, Electric and Electronics, Medicine, Shipbuilding, Fishing, etc. Similarly, the principal minerals are Natural gas, oil, Coal, white clay, glass sand, stone, etc. Bangladesh imports the products including Wheat, Fertilizer, Petroleum products, Cotton, Edible Oil, seeds, yarn, capital goods, Capital machinery, machine tools, electric, electronics, power generating machinery, scientific, medical equipment, iron, steel, motor vehicles, raw cotton, chemicals, etc. The primary energy sources in Bangladesh are Natural gas, Firewood, liquid petroleum fuels, Coal, Hydropower, Solar power, Biogas, etc.
In recent time, some of the most notable potential sectors are telecommunications, IT, Pharmaceuticals and Gas. These sectors are also making significant contributions to the economy of Bangladesh. Beximco Pharma is listed on the London Stock Exchange a few days ago. Countries such as China, Japan, India, United States of America and Russia are also interested in investing in Bangladesh.
The economy of Bangladesh is growing so fast with the contribution of the leading Bangladeshi businessman and the development of environment and investment in all sectors. Economically, Bangladesh is currently the 41st country and the fifth fastest growing country in the world.
Most of the Bangladeshi earned a livelihood from agriculture. So there is no scope to deny its contribution. Although almost all our principal crops & seasonal fruits are Paddy, jute, wheat, tobacco, pulses, oilseeds, spices, vegetables, jackfruit, banana, mango, litchi, papaya, guava, coconut, pineapple, etc. are grown in Bangladesh. Yet the rice is specifically mentioned. With the fertile soil and water supply system of Bangladesh, it is possible to harvest crops three times a year. We can also see the advantages of it. Bangladesh is the third in rice production in the world and even after fulfilling the country's demand we are exporting rice. Thus, the economy of the agricultural country is going forward so fast
Bangladesh is located in the tropical region, so the climate here is the tropical monsoon climate. As the sea is near and the influence of monsoon winds, winter or summer is not very severe. Here the summer is warm and rainy and the winter is dry. Although the Himalayas are not far behind the border of Bangladesh, quite north, it protects Bangladesh from the snowflakes from the north in winter. For this reason, winter is not long here. In winter the temperature of Bangladesh is between 11°-29° Celsius. However, in the north and northwest, this temperature sometimes ranges from 4°-9° Celsius. In Bangladesh, Thakurgaon, Panchagarh, and Srimangal are the coldest places in winter.
From the month of Baishakh, the summer season starts in Bangladesh. According to the English Calendar, it is in the middle of April. In summer, the highest average temperature in Bangladesh is 40° Celsius and the minimum temperature is 25° Celsius. At some places in the northern and north-western part of the country, sometimes the temperature ranges from 40° to 45° Celsius. At the beginning of the summer season, there is somewhere prevails the Kalboishakhi storm. There are cyclones and tidal bores on the sea coast. In the rainy season, the oceanic winds flow from the south, south-west of the Bay of Bengal. It is also mentioned as Monsoon Wind. Due to the Monsoon Wind, it causes heavy rainfall in Bangladesh. But not all regions of the country have the same rainfall.
In the Sylhet, Chittagong, Cox's Bazar areas, it causes more rains. On the other hand, in Rajshahi, Pabna, and Kushtia, it causes less rains. In the autumn, it also rains in Bangladesh, but it is less than the summer. During the rainy season, it increases the river erosion. There are quite a few cyclones and tidal waves in Bangladesh between April-May and October-November.
The climate of Bangladesh is called equilibrium. That is, the weather conditions are both favorable and adverse. As a result of favorable weather, nature is also friendly for agriculture and the environment. On the other hand, for unfavorable weather conditions, some disasters such as storms, tidal bores, floods, droughts, blacksmiths, tornadoes, and extreme rainstorms bring disaster to the people of Bangladesh.
Bangladesh is one of the most densely populated South Asian countries. According to the 2011 census, the population of Bangladesh is estimated to be about 158 million and the population growth rate is about 1.566%. Earlier, in 1991 census, the population was 111.5 million, which stood at 130.5 million in 2001. According to World Bank estimates in 2008, the population of Bangladesh is approximately 160 million and in 2010 according to the World Population Reference, the population of Bangladesh is 164 million. But according to the Population and Housing Census Preliminary results in 2011, the population of Bangladesh is approximately 142 million. It is therefore difficult to provide a specific number of population in Bangladesh. In 2050, the population of the country is estimated to be twice that of 2001.
The majority of the Bangladeshi population (98%) Bengali, rest (2%) tribes, minor races, ethnic sects and communities and non-Bengali Muslims. The tribes, minor races, ethnic sects and communities population was 1.4 million in 2001, which is about 1.13% of the total population. According to the 2001 census, 89.7 percent of the total population in Bangladesh was Muslim and 9.2 percent of Hindu religion. Buddhists, Christians and other religions are 1.2 percent of the total population. In 2011, population density in Bangladesh was 964 per square kilometer, in which 839 people were in 2001. Currently, about a quarter of the total population lives in urban areas. The annual growth rate of urban population was 3.15% during the 1991-2001 decade. Which increased by 3.5% in 2005-2010. [Sources: Banglapedia]
Bangladesh has hundreds of years of history and tradition. Bangladesh is one of the countries with a rich culture. Geographical environment, weather, production methods, etc. play a special role in the formation of culture. As a result, the culture of different countries is different. Again, in a country, different types of culture can be developed. So culture is not a stagnant matter, but rather variable. Not all of the culture changes, but it is. Some of the major aspects of culture remain unchanged for a long time. The main food rice and fish of Bangladesh are still an integral part of the food habits of the country. Jaari, Shari, Baul, Bhawaiya, Bhatiyali, Murshidi, Barmasya, Ghamhari, etc. are the different regional songs that tell the laugh and cry of the people of Bangladesh. In the village fairs, Pala gaan, jatrapala, kabigan, kirtanagan, murshidi gan, etc. and other events have kept the tradition of our village and past times. On the other hand, urban culture has developed according to the geographical environment, occupation, mechanical life of the city. Along with the classical culture of Bengal, modern buildings and many types of cars have entered here. The effect of globalization is more in city life.
In Bangladesh, the international airports are Dhaka, Chittagong and Sylhet as well as the domestic airports are Jessore, Cox’s Bazar, Syedpur, Rajshahi and Barisal.
The inland rivers ports are Dhaka, Chandpur, Barisal, Khulna, Baghabari, Sharishabari, Narayanganj, Bhairab Bazar and Ashuganj.
The land ports in Bangladesh are Benapole, Teknaf, Banglabandha, Barsara, Bagli, Charagaon, Sonamasjid,Nakugaon, Bilonia, Hilli, Darshana, Birol, Burimari, Tamabil, Sutarkandi, Haluaghat, Akhaura, Bibirbazar, Borax, Gobrakora & amp; Karaitoli.
The most visited tourist spots in Bangladesh are Cox’s Bazaar - world’s largest and longest sea beach, Sundarban - the home of Royal Bengal Tiger and world’s largest mangrove forest, Hill Districts in Chittagong (former Chittagong Hill Tracts), Kuakata and Parky sea beach, Foy’s Lake, Dulahajra safari park, Sitakund echo park at Chittagong, century-old historical sites at Dhaka, Paharpur, Moinamati, Mohastangar and lash green tea gardens of Sylhet, riverine life etc.
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